Glossary

A   B    C    D    E    F    G    H      J    K    L   M   N  O   P   Q   R    S    T  U   V   W   X   Y   Z

A

accommodation: Anything sold to travelers for convenience or to satisfy a need such as lodging, traveling space, food, or services.

ACH: See Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network

active reservations list: A list of confirmed reservations stored on the web server.

add-ons: Optional arrangements customers can purchase in conjunction with a vacation.

adjoining rooms: Hotel rooms located next to one another, but do not have connecting doors.

Advanced Passenger Information (API): Biographical data on individual air travelers the law requires to collect prior to their arrival in the U.S. from international locations. This data includes the traveler’s full given name, date of birth, gender, address, nationality, passport number and country issuing the passport. Additionally, the law requires information on visas, country of residence, and other documents for non-citizens of the United States.

Advanced Passenger Information System (APIS): An automated network capable of analyzing Advanced Passenger Information (API). APIS is the result of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act signed into law November 2001.

Agency: A legal relationship in which one person acts for another when engaging in business with a third party.

Airline Reporting Corporation (ARC): A nonprofit airline-owned corporation that accredits U.S. travel agencies and processes their air sales remittances. The ARC appoints travel agencies to sell airline tickets and oversees the financial details of tracking payments to airlines and the disbursement of commissions to travel agencies. The ARC also sets and enforces standards for agency bonding, handling, and storage of tickets.

airport codes: Three-letter codes used to uniquely identify airports.

airport tax: See head tax.

all-inclusive: A fixed-price package that includes all elements of the vacation. All-inclusive vacations usually include transportation, accommodations, meals, and sometimes sightseeing.

allotment: The number of seats, cabins, berths, etc. available for sale by a supplier or agent.

Amadeus: The European computerized reservations system whose founding owners are Air France (23.36%) Lufthansa (18.28%) and Iberia (18.28%); it is based in Madrid.

amenities: The facilities and features of a property, usually a hotel.

American plan: A hotel rate that includes a room and three meals per day.

API: See Advanced Passenger Information.

Apollo: A computerized reservation system owned by United Airlines and the Covia Corporation.

ARC number: A number assigned to travel providers by the Airline Reporting Corporation (ARC) upon registration.

authorization code: A numeric code VAX displays after you submit a credit card payment. This code acknowledges that the system approved and accepted the payment.

Automated Clearing House (ACH) network: A nationwide, batch-oriented, electronic funds transfer system governed by the NACHA OPERATING RULES which provide for the interbank clearing of electronic payments for participating depository financial institutions. The American Clearing House Association, Federal Reserve, Electronic Payments Network, and Visa act as ACH Operators, central clearing facilities through which financial institutions transmit or receive ACH entries. ACH payments include:

–  Direct Deposit of payroll, Social Security and other government benefits, and tax refunds.

–  Direct Payment of consumer bills such as mortgages, loans, utility bills and insurance premiums.

–  Business-to-business payments.

–  E-checks

–  E-commerce payments

–  Federal, state and local tax payments

Visit the NACHA web site for more information.

available rooms:  In a hotel, the number of rooms available for use on a given day, omitting rooms not available due to damage, repairs, and so forth.

availability: The current inventory of unsold seats, rooms, cabins, etc.

B

back office: Business activities, such as accounting, that generally take place out of the view of customers.

balcony: An open-air space or platform off a room.

base fare: The cost, as of airline tickets, before adding tax.

best available: A pledge by a travel supplier to furnish the top accommodation possible to a client.

blackout dates: Dates when special lower fares or other prices are not available or do not apply. Blackout dates usually coincide with holidays and peak travel seasons.

booking:

1. The act of reserving vacation components.

2.  Another name for reservation. See reservation.

booking fee: The charge levied by a CRS on a supplier for handling a reservation.

brochure: In the travel industry, any piece of promotional literature describing a tour, package, attraction, or designation.

bulk fare: A fare available when a vendor buys a block of airline seats to sell to customers. The vendor controls pricing rather than the airline.

bundling: The act of combining a number of different components, products, and/or services in order to sell at one price.

business class: A grade of airline seat and service usually between first class and coach designed to appeal to the business traveler.

C

cabin:

1. The passenger compartment of an airplane.

2. A standard bedroom on a ship.

3. A small isolated building for rent to travelers.

cancellation insurance: Insurance policy for travelers guarding against loss of funds in case the traveler cannot take the trip or the supplier cancels arrangements.

cancellation penalty: An amount deducted by a supplier from a refund of prepaid funds when a customer cancels a reservation.

cancellation policy: Travel supplier terms regarding canceled reservations and the amount of advanced notification necessary to receive a refund.

car class: The specific size, style, and rental price for a rental car.

carrier: A company organized to transport passengers and/or goods.

category: On a cruise ship, a class of cabin or fare level.

charter: A trip or the act in which a company hires all or part of an airplane, ship, bus, train, or other transportation for resale to the public or a specified group.

child: In the travel industry, a designation used to determine fares and other rates for people generally between the ages of 2 and 18. However, this age range varies depending on the company.

city code: A combination of three letters used to uniquely identify a city and/or its airports.

city pair: The origin and destination of a flight.

class code: A two-character code determined by an airline to represent a specific level of flight service. The class code is one letter followed by the number of seats available. For example, F4 where F is the flight class and there are 4 seats available in that class. Class codes are not consistent among the airlines.

CLIA number: A number assigned to travel agents upon registering with the Cruise Lines International Association.

closed dates: Days on which travel or hotel rooms are unavailable due to prior sale or booking.

coach: Usually the lowest and most inexpensive class of transportation. Also known as the economy class.

complimentary: No charge or free.

commission: An amount paid to a travel agent for selling a vacation package. This is usually a percentage of the vacation’s total amount.

commission cap: The maximum amount a vendor pays as commission regardless of the actual price of the ticket or the standard commission rate.

Computerized Reservation System (CRS): See Global Distribution System (GDS).

concierge: A person or deck in a hotel in charge of providing advice and additional services for guests.

confirmation: The official acceptance of a booking by the supplier acknowledging receipt of a reservation and promising to honor it within specified limitations.

confirmation number: A code used to identify and document a reservation confirmation.

connecting flight: A segment of a trip that requires passengers to leave one plane and board another.

connecting rooms: Two or more hotel rooms with private doors permitting access from one to the other without use of a hotel corridor.

connection: A stop on a journey that requires a change of planes or other mode of transportation.

continental breakfast: A morning meal consisting of rolls, fruit, coffee, tea, etc. Often provided by hotels on a complimentary basis.

continental plan: A hotel rate that includes a room and a continental breakfast.

cookie: A mechanism in a Web browser that remembers small pieces of information. VAX cookies remember your user preferences, user name, agency number, and log in/out status so you do not have to retype them every time you log in.

CRS: See Computerized Reservation System.

Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA): Cruise Lines International Association is a marketing and training organization composed of twenty-three of the major cruise lines serving North America. CLIA was formed in 1975 in response to a need for an association to promote the special benefits of cruising. CLIA exists to educate, train, promote and explain the value, desirability, and affordability of the cruise vacation experience.

cutoff date:

1. Specific day when final action must be taken on a reservation or blocked space.

2. The day beyond which an offer, fare, request, or availability no longer applies or is no longer honored.

D

default: A pre-programmed setting that users can sometimes change or modify.

deluxe: A term used in travel to suggest highest quality.

departure tax: See head tax, passenger facility charge.

deposit: Payment made to hold accommodations or space on a vacation. Deposits may be partially or fully refundable if the customer cancels with enough advance notice.

destination: The location of the actual vacation experience.

direct flight: A trip between two locations with intermediate stops that does not require passengers to change planes. This differs from a nonstop flight that does not land between the origin and destination.

disclaimer: A formal denial of legal and financial responsibility for monetary losses or other injury incurred as a result of advice given or products or services sold.

discount fare: A special fare, usually for a limited time and in a limited quantity.

document delivery address: The document delivery address is the location where the itinerary, tickets, passes, etc., need to be sent.

domestic airline: An airline carrier that provides service within its own country. Also known as domestic carrier.

domestic fare: Fare charged for travel within a country.

double booking: The practice of confirming two or more reservations when only one will be used.

double (DB): A hotel room suitable for two people. It may have one double bed, two twin beds, or two double beds. Rooms with two double beds are sometimes called “double-double.”

double occupancy: The rate for a room used by two people at the same time.

downgrade: The act of changing to a lower class of service or accommodation.

drop-off charge: A fee charged by a rental car company when the renter does not return the car to the original rental location.

duty: A tax; most often applied to imported goods.

duty-free: Being exempt from import tax. Most often applied to goods bought in special airport shops just before boarding for a trip to another country.

E

economy class: See coach.

effective date: The day on which a fare or other offer becomes valid.

efficiency accommodation: A small room with minimal kitchen and bath facilities.

electronic distribution (ED): Systems and web sites that interface with the Global Distribution Systems (GDS) to enable travel agents to access and book reservations any hour of the day. ED systems enable you to easily book entire vacation packages. Some ED systems include Tourlink, Tour Source, and LeisureShopper. Some ED web sites include VAX and Online Vacation Mall (OVM).

entry fee:

1. The price charged for admission to a place, competition, or attraction.

2. The duty levied on a person entering a country.

entry requirements: The official documentation required by a country to allow a foreigner to enter.

European plan: A hotel rate that does not include meals.

excursion: A side trip, usually short, made with the intention of returning to the starting location.

excursion fare: A special price offering round-trip transportation below the combined cost of component one-way prices. Excursion fares usually come with restrictions such as an advance purchase requirement and/or a minimum stay.

extended stay: A hotel visit exceeding seven days.

F

fair market value: The price of an item’s actual worth, assuming a free market of willing buyers and sellers acting in their own best interests.

fare: The price charged for transportation.

fare basis: The specific fare for a ticket at a designated level of service.

fare code: A code used to book reservations on a CRS for a special price.

feature: An entertainment item available for a vacation. Features include shows, tours, attractions, etc.

fee-based pricing: A method of pricing agency services based on the supplier’s net price, plus a mark-up that covers the cost of delivering the service and a profit.

final payment: A remittance that brings the balance owed to zero.

first class: Top quality seats on services. Usually, first class service is the best a supplier has to offer.

fly/drive package: An offer that bundles airfare, car rental, and sometimes land accommodations for a certain number of nights at a fixed price.

foreign exchange rate: The rate at which you can swap one country’s currency for that of another.

frequent flyer program: A plan offered by airlines to award bonuses, such as free travel or upgraded service, to paying customers based on the number of miles they fly with their specific airline. Hotels and car rental companies have also adopted this concept through frequent lodging and frequent rental plans. Participation in these plans is optional.

fuel surcharge: An additional fee added to a fare by an airline to cover the increased cost of fuel. Fuel charges are seldom quoted in the fare.

G

Galileo international: Along with Worldspan and Sabre, one of the three major U.S. based computerized reservations systems.

gateway: A city that services as an arrival or departure point.

Global Distribution System (GDS): Any of several proprietary computer systems that contain inventory databases and enable real-time access to airfares, schedules, and seating availability; offering the capability of booking flights and hotels; and the ability to generate tickets. The four major GDS’s include Apollo, Galileo, Sabre, and Worldspan. Also known as Computerized Reservation System (CRS).

gross profit: Net sales minus the cost of goods or services sold and before payment of taxes and operating expenses.

gross retail price: The net retail price plus commission. This is the rate offered to consumers.

gross sales: Total sales receipts before subtracting any expenses or deductions for returns or other post-sale adjustments.

group rate: The price offered to a party of generally 10 or more travelers.

guaranteed payment reservation: A hotel reservation secured by the guest’s agreement, usually by credit card, to pay for the room even if it is not used.

H

head tax: A fee charged to a visitor or passenger for entry into or departure from an airport or hotel. See also passenger facility charge (PFC).

hostel: An inexpensive, usually supervised lodging primarily for young people.

hot deal: An advertisement for a vacation package. Hot deals are not specially priced. Hot deals are similar to the advertisements in the travel section of a newspaper.

Hotel classifications: Designations used throughout the world, whether the rating is made professionally or for promotion. In Europe, the general system is to rate hotels from 5-star-deluxe-to-1-star-budget or economy. There is no universally accepted system in the U.S.

* Deluxe or luxury: A top-grade hotel; all rooms with private bath, and highest standards maintained throughout.

* Moderate class: Some rooms with private bath and most standard public rooms and services.

* Second class: A budget operation; very possibly no private bath and very probably limited services and amenities; also called economy or tourist class.

hotel package: A bundle offered by a hotel, sometimes consisting only of room and breakfast, and sometimes, especially at a resort hotel, of room, meals, transportation, use of sports facilities, and other services.

hub: A city or airport where an airline has major operations and many gates.

hub and spoke: A system of routing airline passengers through a central airport, permitting a carrier to operate fewer flights on less traveled routes.

I

in season: Items only available at certain times of the year.

incentive: Merchandise, travel, cash, services, or intangibles offered to a travel agent or customer as a reward for taking a specific action.

incentive travel: Travel offered by vendors to travel agents as an incentive toward greater productivity or as a reward for outstanding performance.

incentive vacation: A vacation package that bundles transportation and accommodations along with additional services such as transfers, sightseeing, museum admissions, and so forth.

inclusive resort: A property that includes the room, meals, and amenities in a single package rate; also called all-inclusive resort.

indirect air carrier: A charter vendor, an agent, or other operator who may contract for charter space from an airline for resale.

infant: In the travel industry, a designation used to determine fares and other rates for children under the age of two. Infants often travel free of charge.

interactive agent reporting system (IAR): An ARC program in which weekly agents submit sales reports electronically.

island hopping: Visiting a number of islands in quick succession, as on a cruise.

itinerary: A chronological itemized list of all components for a vacation. The itinerary includes air flights, hotels, car rentals, tours, attractions, ground transportation, and taxes.

J

joint fare: See through fare.

junior suite: A large hotel room with a partition separating the bed and sitting area.

K

king room:A hotel room with a king-size bed.

L

land-only: A rate that does not include flights.

late booking fee: An additional charge levied by vendors for reservations made shortly before departure.

leg: The segment of a flight between two consecutive scheduled stops.

lodging: See accommodation.

loss damage waiver (LDW): Protection offered by car rental companies against responsibility for damage to the rental car resulting from loss, theft, vandalism, or collision.

low season: See off-season, off-peak.

lowest fare finder: A search tool in VAX that compares the lowest published fare to the lowest bulk fare and returns the lowest price for the size of your party.

M

manifest: A document listing the passengers or goods on an airplane or ship.

markup: The amount or percentage added to a net rate or net retail price to arrive at the gross retail price.

mileage charge: The per mile fee charged by a car rental company.

minimum/maximum stay requirements: Airline ticket sale conditions or other services that require travelers to stay at the destination for a certain period of time.

miscellaneous charge order (MCO): A payment voucher used by an airline or travel agent to cover payment for transportation, accommodations, sightseeing, and other services.

multi-access reservations system: A computerized reservations system (CRS) offering travel agencies access to the computers of various airline carriers and other suppliers.

N

net amount: The amount due to the vendor after commissions have been deducted.

net profit: Earnings after deducting all expenses.

net retail price: The vendor rate before commission.

nonrefundable ticket: An airline boarding pass for which you cannot change the dates and cannot return because of its low cost.

nonstop: Transportation from the origin to the destination without intermediate stops.

nontransferable: A ticket that cannot be used by anyone other than the person to which it was issued.

O

occupancy rate: A ratio expressed as a percentage of hotel rooms sold to the total offered for sale during a specific time period.

ocean view: A hotel room with a view of the ocean, usually located on the side of a hotel.

oceanfront: A hotel room directly facing the ocean.

off-peak: A time of year when business is traditionally slow for the travel industry.

off-season: A time when business is traditionally slowest in the travel industry and rates are often at their lowest.

one-way trip: Transportation for one location to another without provision for returning.

open jaw: A round trip in which the return trip begins at a point other than the arrival point. For example, New York to Chicago with a return from Detroit.

open jaw with side trip: An open jaw itinerary with an additional round trip from one of the cities on the itinerary.

open seating: Seats or tables that can be occupied on a first-come basis

option: Any part of a vacation that is not a flight or a hotel. Options include car rentals, features, and insurance.

optional: A term used to describe any product or service that is not included in the base price, but may be added at the customers discretion for an additional cost.

origin: The starting point prior to travel.

outbound: Referring to the leg of a trip departing the origin city.

override commission: An additional fee percentage (usually around 1% for using VAX) paid to travel agents on top of the normal commission.

P

passenger facility charge (PFC): A head tax allowing U.S. airports to impose a fee to be used for federally approved airport improvements. Airlines collect the tax and remit the funds to the airport.

passenger Name Record (PNR): A booking record made and stored on a computerized reservations system containing all the information relating to a specific booking including passenger names, flight number, travel times and dates, airlines, and price.

passport: A document identifying an individual as a citizen of a specific country and attesting to the passenger’s identity and ability to travel freely.

peak: A time of year when travel and tourism are traditionally at the highest level.

preferred supplier: A vendor with which a travel agency has negotiated or earned a higher commission rate.

preferred supplier agreement: An arrangement between a corporation and vendor in which the corporation requires its employees to use the products and services of the vendor in return for discounts and other advantages.

promotion code: A code vendors create to reward customers with a specific discount amount, a percentage discount, free or discounted items, or to track travel business.

promotional fare: A discount fare designed to increase sales volume.

proof of citizenship: Any documentation that indicates the citizenship of an individual, including birth certificates, voter’s registration cards, or passports.

pseudo ARC number: A code, often a telephone number, used by suppliers to identify travel agencies that do not have an ARC number.

pseudo city code: A CRS code used to identify a travel agency location.

pseudo PNR: A record stored in a CRS that does not contain an airline reservation. See also passenger name record.

public charter: An airplane or other transportation that may be leased by the general public.

published fare: Any fare listed specifically in the airline carrier’s schedule of prices. The airline controls the price.

Q

quad room (QD): A hotel room suitable for four people.

queen room: A hotel room with a queen-size bed.

queue: To route a communication, such as a passenger name record, on a CRS to a specific destination, such as a travel agency.

quote: To state a price.

R

rack rate: The regular public rate for a hotel room.

record locator: In a CRS, a string of characters that serve as a unique identifier for a reservation or passenger name record.

referral agency: A travel agency using a network of outside sales agents to pass travel requests to an inside sales force that makes the actual sale. Generally, these agencies seek to recruit as large an outside sales force as possible.

regular fare: An unrestricted full-price fare.

remittance: The payment for a product or service.

remote ticketing: The practice of booking a reservation at one location and printing the ticket at another location.

reservation: An arrangement to have vacation components held or guaranteed for one’s use.

resort: Generally, an area or city offering recreation or leisure opportunities along with accommodations.

restricted fare: Airline price that limit’s the time the holder can travel and imposes other limits, such as advance-purchase and minimum/maximum-stay requirements.

rollaway: In a hotel, a cot-like bed that can be folded and rolled from place to place.

room tax: Local and state charges on hotel accommodations that are added to a guest’s bill.

room type: General room description by category, such as single, twin, or suite.

round-trip fare: The rate charged for a trip to a destination and a return by the same route.

run-of-the-house rate: A flat price at which a hotel agrees to offer any of its rooms to a group.

S

sabre: Along with Galileo and Worldspan, one of the three major U.S. – based computerized reservations systems.

scheduled carrier: An airline that operates according to a published schedule.

security surcharge: An additional fee levied on an airline ticket to pay for increased protection at airports.

segment: A leg of an air itinerary from boarding the plane at one location to leaving the plane at another location.

senior fares: A lower airline price available from some U.S. carriers for senior citizens. The age at which someone qualifies as a “senior” varies with the supplier and can range between 50 and 65 years.

service charge: An additional charge levied for care of guests, usually replaces a tip.

service fee: A charge to the customer levied by a travel agency, usually to cover the time and expense of arranging air travel.

single (SI): A hotel room suitable for one person.

spa:

1. An area in a hotel or resort offering such amenities as steam baths, saunas, massage, etc.

2. A resort specifically designed to appeal to the health or diet conscious.

special fare: Any price other than those normally offered.

standby: A passenger on a waitlist for a seat; usually holding a ticket on a reduced fare.

stopover: A stop at an intermediate point in one’s journey.

suite: Hotel unit of at least two rooms; may include kitchen facilities.

superior room: In a hotel, a more expensive room providing a better view, exposure, or other amenities.

supplier: In the travel industry, any company providing travel services to the public.

surcharge: An additional fee levied for the provision of certain additional features or because of special extenuating circumstances.

T

tariff: A schedule of fares or prices.

theme park: A large amusement facility with rides, shows, restaurants, shops, and other attractions. The architecture, decoration, uniforms, music, and other features suggest an image or motif for the entire grounds or designated sections of it.

through fare: A fare applying from one location to another through one or more gateways on one airline.

tour:

1. A travel product in which several elements are bundled together and sold as a unit. Tours typically involve the use of a guide, host, or escort by groups.

2. Another name for vacation.

tour operator: See vendor.

tracking number: A number you can create in VAX that enables you to save your itinerary information without creating the actual reservation. Use tracking numbers if you want to save your work and complete it at a later time.

transaction fee: Charges for certain types of services, such as making or canceling reservations, ticket delivery, and providing insurance or visas.

transfer: Local transportation between two locations usually as part of a vacation package. Transfers can include transportation from an airport to a hotel, from a hotel to a theater or restaurant, or from one airport terminal to another.

trip: In the travel industry, any journey of more than 100 miles from a person’s home, regardless of whether an overnight stay is involved.

triple (TR): A hotel room suitable for three people.

twin: A hotel room containing two single beds.

twin-double: A hotel room containing two double beds. Sometimes called a “double-double.”

U

universal package identification code (UPID): See Vacation ID.

upgrade: A move to the next higher category of service, room, seat, etc.

V

vacancy: An empty room at a hotel or motel.

vacation ID: A 12-character code used to designate the type of vacations offered in the reservation system. The codes have the format DDDCCOOOPPPP where DDD is the destination code, CC is the carrier code, OO is the origin code, and PPPP is the product ID. Also known as a Universal Package Identification Code (UPID).

vacation Shopper: A VAX tool that enables you to search for vacations by price within one specific vendor’s inventory. You can enter vacation requirements along with the preferred price range and VAX finds the least expensive vacations within your price range that meet the requirements you enter.

value added tax: A government fee imposed each time a product changes hands.

VAX VacationAccess: A Web-based tool that enables travel agents to book vacation packages 24 hours a day. VAX also enables you to:

* Track all bookings, payments, and commissions.

* Research package information, availability, and pricing.

* Research vendor information.

vendor: A travel company that purchases travel inventory from a supplier in order to assemble packages that offer consumers all vacation accommodations, transportation, and features. They are the merchant of sale and assume the business risk.

volume incentive: An extra commission or other inducement suppliers offer to travel agencies to increase sales. See also override commission.

voucher: A coupon or other document, either pre-paid or complimentary, entitling the bearer to certain goods, services, or discounts upon presentation.

W

waitlist: A roster of customers who seek space on a flight or other trip for a day or time that is sold out.

weekend rates: Special rates often used to attract leisure travelers to business hotels.

Worldspan: Along with Sabre and Galileo, one of the three major U.S. based computerized reservations systems.

World Trade Organization (WTO): A worldwide group of government travel organizations involved in promoting tourism.

X

No “X” terms at this time.

Y

No “Y” terms at this time.

Z

No “Z” terms at this time.

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